What is Forensic Toxicology | Definition, Need & Scope and Significance of Toxicology

Forensic toxicology refers to the branch of forensic science which uses the scientific principles of toxicology, to applicate it in crime scene investigation,

FORENSIC SCIENCEFORENSIC TOXICOLOGY

Shubham Kumar

1/29/20247 min read

Ever wonder how a normal edible sugar can cause diabetic attack or the element sodium which is required by human body, can cause cardiac arrect. These all findings are the result of modern toxicology. Notably, we are surrounded by extreme number of poisons, however, we are not aware wit any of that. Therefore, the study of toxicology and especially forensic toxicology is important so that you don't consume paracetamol indefinitely. :)

In this article we are going to gain valuable insights on the branch of forensic toxicology, moreover, will cover its need/scope and its significance.

Definition of Forensic Toxicology

Toxicology refers to the branch of science that deals with the scientific study of poisons. The study involves their composition, hazards and potential applications. The name toxicology is derived from the Greek word 'TOXICON', which means an 'arrow'. Due to advancements in different fields of science, the toxicology has been undergone in major evolutions. Therefore, the modern-day toxicology is defined as the study of adverse effects of both chemical and physical agents (Poisons\Toxins) on the biological systems. Paracelsus is considered as the father of toxicology.

Forensic toxicology refers to the branch of forensic science which uses the scientific principles of toxicology, to applicate it in crime scene investigation, in order to collect, analyze, examine, evaluate and individualize the biological evidence present on the crime scene or related to crime scene, in order to seek justice in administration of court.

This branch finds its specification in meticulous analysis of biological evidence to ascertain the presence and concentration of drugs, alcohol, and other toxic substances within the human body. Biological evidence like blood, semen, urine, tissues, bile juice, sweat, hair follicles, etc.

It serves the purpose of law by employing toxicological principles for legal investigations, standing as a unique blend of analytical chemistry and fundamental toxicology. The resulting toxicology report is instrumental, offering crucial insights into the substances within an individual, determining whether their levels align with therapeutic dosages or exceed harmful thresholds.

Notably, Mateu Joseph Bonaventura Orfila i Rotger is referred as the Father of Forensic Toxicology.

This discipline plays a pivotal role in investigations pertaining to drug-related crimes, cases involving driving under the influence (DUI), suspicious deaths, and workplace incidents. Forensic toxicologists employ a diverse range of scientific techniques to identify and quantify toxic substances, as well as interpret their effects on the human body.

Advent of Modern Toxicology

Mateu Joseph Bonaventura Orfila i Rotger is referred as the Father of Forensic Toxicology. He was Spanish physician and chemist, widely known for his knowledge regarding toxic substances. He is widely praised by establishing multiple principles and methods in field of toxicology. In 1814, he published his research work "Traité des poisons" (Treatise on Poisons).

This research work talks about the effects of toxicology on human body, which led the foundation of modern toxicology. Orfila gained widespread attention for his research work, which involves effects of various poisons on the human body and introduced systematic methods for their detection and analysis.

Need and Scope of Forensic Toxicology

Since time being in force, the method of execution of crime has undergo varied changes, pertaining to the use of toxic substance to commit crime. Moreover, the criminals, nowadays, have a wide knowledge about the harmful effects of toxic effects on human body. Furthermore, criminals are opting unique compositions and methods to commit crime via toxic substance. In order to catch these culprits and to cope up with high skilled criminals, forensic toxicology is very important.

Toxicology Ethical, Legal and Social Parlances

If you are thinking that the application of forensic toxicology is only limited for investigation proposes, then you might get surprised to know that the need and scope of toxicology ranges from social to legal to ethical parlances in daily life. In our daily life we are continuously getting exposed to multiple chemicals and toxicants, which holds the potential to harm us if present in large quantity. (If you don't know the difference between- Toxic, toxicants, toxicity and toxins. Click on it, know proper information)

This site of exposer includes society, personal life space, environment and workspaces. Proper knowledge about the toxicology, especially forensic toxicology, allows us to have more precautions in worldwide environment. For example, proper checking on consumer goods and maintaining the adequate amount of consumption. Furthermore, analyzing the pharmaceuticals, manufacturing processes and then opting for that medicine. Moreover, performing waste management, regulatory actions, civil disputes, and policy decisions.

Countering the influence of Poison

Since time being in force, the method of execution of crime have been under evolution multiple times, however, except one crime, that is poison. Poison stands as the most prominent Sealth killer which has deep rooted historic parlances since time of Mauryan empire.

Nowadays, the application of poison to kill any person have become a prevalent medical emergency globally. The most promising feature of the poison is that it can blend in any substrate, easy to disguise. Most of the poison are specialized to reflect the symptoms of different diseases simultaneously proceeding the poisoning effect. Therefore, it confuses the examiner to detect the exact note of problem. For example, increased level of sodium in blood leads to cardiac arrest, however, that cardiac arrest will be different from natural cardiac test. It can only be detected via forensic toxicology.

When a person is subjected to get poison, the traces are commonly detected in body fluids such as urine, blood, or gastric lavage. However, these traces are found when the body is alive. In case of a dead body, poisons can be found in stomach contents, bowels, viscera, urine, and vomitus.  In challenging cases involving putrefaction or contamination, bone marrow can serve as an alternative specimen depot for drug analysis.

Wide applications of Toxicology

In earlier times, the toxicology only refers to the study of poison and its adverse effects. However, with the evolution and promising work of Mathews Orfila, toxicology undergoes various evolutions. The berth of forensic toxicology led to huge advancement in field of medical science. Currently, toxicology encompasses environment, occupational, clinical, mechanical and forensic toxicology. Furthermore, it addresses occupational poisoning, environmental pollution exposure, radiation effects, and unfortunately, biological and chemical warfare. Moreover, the science of toxicology, includes wide range of interests spanning from poisoning to food additives.

Forensic toxicology is specialized in detecting and estimating the presence of poisons in tissues and body fluids. Furthermore, incorporates post-mortem, and collecting body samples ranging from blood to organs.

The Unpredictable Nature of Poisoning

Though, from poison we always refer to Sealth killer, however, with adequate it can be served as medicine. Both medicines and poisons are drugs only, however, only differs on the basis of their level of consumption. For example, a common sugar which everyone eats, can be served as poison if taken in illicit manner. That common sugar can cause diabetic attack when you take it in excess. Moreover, the normal inhaled oxygen O2, can cause lungs trauma if you will inject it intravenously.

Toxicology keeps a close eye on ensuring the consumption of any drug under adequate amount. Therefore, to protect individuals from fatal repercussions. Furthermore, there is a thin line between medicine and poison. Forensic toxicology regulates the proper code of conduct in pharmaceutical processes. Moreover, detecting the cause of death if the death of the body occurs by poisoning.

Significance of Forensic Toxicology

Forensic toxicology stands as the watcher to regulate adequate concentrate of drugs in all forms of chemical are to be exposed by individuals. Notably, detects the cause of death if mode of death is poisoning. Moreover, analysis, collect and reserve the bodily samples in serious and mysterious cases.

Significance regarding the investigation

Sample Collection: Forensic toxicologists meticulously collect samples such as blood, urine, hair, saliva, or tissue from deceased or living individuals for analysis. The choice of sample depends on the substance of interest, the time elapsed since exposure, and the availability of the sample.

Drug Identification: Toxicologists employ a variety of analytical methods, including chromatography, spectrometry, and immunoassays, to identify drugs and their metabolites in biological samples. These techniques aid in determining the presence, type, and concentration of drugs or toxins in the body.

Interpretation of Results: Forensic toxicologists interpret analytical results within the context of the case. Factors such as the detected substance, its concentration, the route of administration, the time of ingestion, and the individual's tolerance and response to the substance are carefully considered.

Postmortem Toxicology: In cases of suspicious deaths, toxicologists perform postmortem toxicology analyses to determine if drugs or toxins played a role in the individual's demise. They may also assess the contribution of substances, such as prescription medications or illicit drugs, to the cause and manner of death.

Forensic Drug Screening: Toxicologists conduct rapid drug screening tests to detect the presence of drugs in biological samples. While these tests provide initial information about potential drug presence, further confirmation using more specific analytical methods may be required.

Drug Metabolism: Understanding the metabolism of drugs is crucial for forensic toxicologists. They investigate how drugs are broken down in the body and the formation of metabolites. This knowledge helps determine the timing of drug exposure and assists in the interpretation of toxicological findings.

Expert Testimony: Forensic toxicologists often serve as expert witnesses in court proceedings. They present their findings, explain toxicological concepts and results to the judge and jury, and provide expert opinions on the potential effects of the detected substances.

Significance regarding the Analysis of products liable to be exposed with individuals

Quality Assurance: To ensure accurate and reliable results, forensic toxicology laboratories adhere to strict quality assurance protocols. These include maintaining proper chain of custody for samples, performing proficiency testing, following standard operating procedures, and using validated analytical methods.

Emerging Trends: Forensic toxicology continually evolves with advancements in technology and the emergence of new drugs and toxins. Toxicologists must stay abreast of the latest research and developments in the field to effectively analyze and interpret toxicological findings.

Alcohol Analysis: Determining alcohol levels in the body is a common focus of forensic toxicology, particularly in cases involving DUI offenses or suspicious deaths. Alcohol analysis is typically performed using techniques such as gas chromatography (GC) or enzymatic assays.

The article above achieves its aim to provide you thorough information about forensic toxicology. Thanks for reading.

Reference

  • "Forensic DNA Typing" by John M. Butler

  • "The Forensic Casebook: The Science of Crime Scene Investigation" by Ngaire E. Genge

  • "Forensic Science: A Very Short Introduction" by Jim Fraser

  • "Practical Crime Scene Processing and Investigation" by Ross M. Gardner