Types of Crime | Understanding the Various Types of Crime | Different types of crime exists in society!
This exploration delves into different aspects of crime, shedding light on distinct categories that range from predatory and violent crimes to
Crime encompasses both the commission and omission of unlawful acts, representing any action that violates the laws established by the government. The evolution of crime has been propelled by modern influences and technological advancements. However, it is imperative to delve deeper than a mere understanding of crime; one must grasp the various types and nuances that characterize the realm of unlawful activities.
This exploration delves into different aspects of criminal activities, shedding light on distinct categories that range from predatory and violent crimes to inchoate crimes, hate crimes, and offenses without a direct victim.
Predatory Crime: Exploitation in Plain Sight
A predatory crime is the crime in which the victim suffers the conspicuous and blatant exploitation, while the perpetrator suffers no loss. In these types of crimes, the entire benefit is enjoyed by the accused without providing any discernible service to the victim. The prefatory crime is taken from the natural phenomenon, in which the predator tends to annihilate its prey and receives entire profit, if found success. Just like, the whole nature is tensed up due to advent of predator, similarly, on predatory crimes, entire society reacts to it.
In other words, a predatory crime is one in which the exploitation of the victim is so conspicuous that entire society reacts to it. In a predatory crime, the entire benefit is enjoyed by the perpetrator without any kind of apparent or actual service to the victim.
Examples include theft, dacoity, extortion, and pickpocketing, highlighting the audacious nature of these offenses.
Violent Crime: Striking Fear into Communities
Violent crimes are usually subordinates to the predatory crimes. These crimes are included into grave offence, as they tends to bring insecurity and fear in the society. Violent crimes are taken on the true meaning of the word 'Violent'. As the name suggests, these crimes are committed through well enriched magnitude and adversely affects the public peace.
Violent crimes, a subset of predatory crimes, are usually performed by the skilled and serious criminals. These grave offenses can be broadly categorized into four groups, each affecting different aspects of society:
Crimes Affecting the Body
Kidnapping and abduction
Crimes Affecting Property
Preparation for dacoity
Crimes Affecting Public Safety
Crimes Affecting Women
Criminal assault to outrage the modesty of women.
In India, the Delhi, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, holds the inappropriate impression in the basis of notoriety in the violent crimes. These are some states with high commission and omission of violent crimes, followed by Haryana, Punjab and Jharkhand. Notably, violent crimes against women have recorded an unprecedented increase throughout the countr
Inchoate Crimes: The Prelude to Offense
Inchoate crime involves committing an act with the intent to affect another crime. Under the Indian Penal Code, three inchoate crimes exist:
Attempt (Sec. 511)
Abetment (Sec. 107)
Criminal Conspiracy (Sec. 120-B)
Attempt, as an inchoate offense, is conduct closely linked to the commission of an indictable offense when done with the intent to commit the offense.
Hate Crimes: Unveiling Prejudice
If you are thinking of that the predatory crimes like theft, robbery and violent crimes like murder rapes, are the only crime to exists, then you are certainly wrong. Apart from this crime, the state has been able to identify special variety of crime, which based on the personal grudge and grievance, called hate crime.
Hate crime possess differentiated features as compared to other crimes. The accused of the hate crime usually have no motivation, they just derived by their personal feelings towards anything which violates their personal grudges. In these kinds of offences, the evidence placed in the court of administration is prejudice based. Prejudice refers to race, religion, ethnicity, disability or sexual orientation.
Hate may be defined as the action committed by the perpetrator to hurt the victim, because of victim's actual or perceived race, colour, religion, disability, sexual orientation or origin. In these cases, the triggering point for the perpetrator is related to prejudice only.
The most targeted victims of hate crime are racial or religions minorities and particular vulnerable caste people. Hate crimes involve victimization of minorities due to their racial or ethnic identity by members of the majority. One of the most important feature of hate crime, is that hate crime is emphasis on group and not the individual.
Crime without a Victim: Unraveling Victimless Offenses
Apart from the predatory, violent, inchoate and hate crimes, there are other class of crime, which doesn't involve any victim, still is punishable. These crimes have no direct impact on the public/society, however, have the potential to cause the indirect impact on society. Moreover, this class of crimes is one of the most crucial reasons for the facilitation of other crimes like predatory, violent, inchoate and hate crimes. As we said these crimes have no direct impact, but indirect impact, these crimes are the driving force behind other crimes.
For example- Drinking Alcohol is a crime in some states, and not in others. If you calculate the crime rate between these states, you will see the difference. Alcohol is illegal in Gujrat, India but legal in UP\Bihar, India. You can see the difference in crime rate in both the states.
Drinking alcohol may not directly affect the society/public, however, have indirect effects, by increasing the cases on domestic violence, theft, assault, grievous hurt, rape, etc. Rash driving may not directly affect the society/public, however, have indirect effects as hit and run cases, accidents, culpable homicide but not amounting to murder and sometime, crushing the poor people on footpaths.
Other offences- sale and use of prohibited substances, vagrancy, begging, soliciting, bestiality, homosexuality, etc.
Certain offenses, while punishable by law, do not directly harm others, earning the label of victimless crimes. Examples include drunkenness, sale and use of prohibited substances, vagrancy, begging, soliciting, bestiality, and homosexuality. The legality of these crimes often hinges on community morality and economic interests. Many such activities are decriminalized in various countries, advocating for non-criminal methods, like social service programs, to address the underlying issues.
"Begging, as a criminal conduct, reflects a person's helplessness and the state's apathy towards their plight." by- N, V, Paranjape
The multifaceted nature of criminal activities encompasses exploitation, violence, inchoate actions, prejudice-driven acts, and offenses without direct victims. Understanding these categories provides insight into the diverse challenges faced by societies and prompts discussions on legal frameworks and social interventions. As N, V, Paranjape aptly points out, "Begging, as a criminal conduct, reflects a person's helplessness and the state's apathy towards their plight."