How to mark tooth according to Federation Dentine Internationale | A brief Overview

The Federation Dentine Internationale or FDI World Dental Federation notation system is a commonly used system for the numbering and naming of teeth. The

FORENSIC SCIENCEFORENSIC ODONTOLOGY

Shubham Kumar

1/29/20243 min read

The Federation Dentine Internationale or FDI World Dental Federation notation system is a commonly used system for the numbering and naming of teeth. The system uses a two number system for the location and naming of each tooth.

In 1966, Federation Dentine International (FDI) introduced a simple and accurate method to memorize and differentiate individual tooth in permanent and temporary (deciduous) dentine. Through this method one can specifically point out the particular tooth from either permanent or temporary (deciduous) dentine.

Permanent Dentition | Federation Dentine Internationale (FDI)

The jaw is divided into four quadrants between the central incisors and the upper and lower dental arches.

First Digit: Indicates the quadrant of the mouth where the tooth is located. Second Digit: Indicates the specific tooth within that quadrant.

First Digit:

  • 1: Maxillary (upper jaw) right quadrant of permanent dentine.

  • 2: Maxillary (upper jaw) left quadrant of permanent dentine.

  • 3: Mandible (lower jaw) left quadrant of permanent dentine.

  • 4: Mandible (lower jaw) right quadrant of permanent dentine.

Second Digit:

  • 1: Central incisors

  • 2: Lateral incisors

  • 3: Canines

  • 4: First premolars

  • 5: Second premolars

  • 6: First molars

  • 7: Second molars

  • 8: Third molars (wisdom teeth)

Examples:

  • 11: Central incisor in the maxillary right quadrant of permanent dentition.

  • 35: Second premolar in the mandible left quadrant of permanent dentition.

  • 48: Third molar in the mandible right quadrant of permanent dentition.

Temporary Dentition (Primary Teeth) | Federation Dentine Internationale (FDI)

First Digit: Indicates the quadrant of the mouth where the tooth is located. Second Digit: Indicates the specific tooth within that quadrant.

First Digit:

  • 5: Maxillary (upper jaw) right quadrant of temporary dentine.

  • 6: Maxillary (upper jaw) left quadrant of temporary dentine.

  • 7: Mandible (lower jaw) left quadrant of temporary dentine.

  • 8: Mandible (lower jaw) right quadrant of temporary dentine.

Second Digit:

  • 1: Central incisors

  • 2: Lateral incisors

  • 3: Canines

  • 4: First molars

  • 5: Second molars

Examples:

  • 51: Central incisor in the maxillary right quadrant of temporary dentition.

  • 53: Canine in the maxillary right quadrant of temporary dentition.

  • 73: Canine in the mandible left quadrant of temporary dentition.

How Federation Dentine Internationale (FDI) works?

Federation Dentine Internationale assigns two digits to each tooth. For example, let's take digit "XY", in the digit "XY"- X (Tenth-Place digit) represents either left or right quadrant of the jaw, moreover, representing permanent or temporary dentine. Y (Ones-Place Digit) represents the particular tooth like Incisors, canines, premolars and molars.

Digit "XY"

Tenth-place digit

Temporary (deciduous) dentine

  • 5: Maxillary (upper jaw) right quadrant of temporary dentine.

  • 6: Maxillary (upper jaw) left quadrant of temporary dentine.

  • 7: Mandible (lower jaw) left quadrant of temporary dentine.

  • 8: Mandible (lower jaw) right quadrant of temporary dentine.

Ones-Place Digit

Temporary (deciduous) dentine

  • 1: Central incisors

  • 2: Lateral incisors

  • 3: Canines

  • 4: First molars

  • 5: Second molars

Permanent Dentine

  • 1: Maxillary (upper jaw) right quadrant of permanent dentine.

  • 2: Maxillary (upper jaw) left quadrant of permanent dentine.

  • 3: Mandible (lower jaw) left quadrant of permanent dentine.

  • 4: Mandible (lower jaw) right quadrant of permanent dentine.

Permanent Dentine

  • 1: Central incisors

  • 2: Lateral incisors

  • 3: Canines

  • 4: First premolars

  • 5: Second premolars

  • 6: First molars

  • 7: Second molars

  • 8: Third molars (wisdom teeth)

Now let's have two Examples: 15 and 55

Solving 15

15- Represents Second premolar of maxillary right quadrant of permanent dentine. Where-

1 (Tenth Place)

Represents-

The maxillary right quadrant of permanent dentine.

5 (Ones-Place)

Represents-

The second molar of permanent dentine.

Solving 55

55- Represents Second molar of maxillary right quadrant of temporary dentine. Where-

5 (Tenth Place)

Represents-

The maxillary right quadrant of temporary dentine.

5 (Ones-Place)

Represents-

The second molar of temporary dentine.

The second set of examples are on the Mandible region (Lower Jaw)

Now let's have two Examples: 32 and 82

Solving 32

32- Represents second incisor of mandible left quadrant of permanent dentine

3 (Tenth Place)

Represents-

The mandible left quadrant of permanent dentine.

2 (Ones-Place)

Represents-

The second incisor of permanent dentine.

Solving 82

55- Represents Second incisor of maxillary right quadrant of temporary dentine. Where-

8 (Tenth Place)

Represents-

The mandible right quadrant of temporary dentine.

2 (Ones-Place)

Represents-

The second incisor of temporary dentine.

Reference

  • "Forensic DNA Typing" by John M. Butler

  • "The Forensic Casebook: The Science of Crime Scene Investigation" by Ngaire E. Genge

  • "Forensic Science: A Very Short Introduction" by Jim Fraser

  • "Practical Crime Scene Processing and Investigation" by Ross M. Gardner