Forensic Evidence | Significance of Forensic Evidence in Crime Investigation

Forensic evidence is those evidence which are present of the crime scene or related to the crime, which is when investigated by a skilled analyst, unleashes th

CRIME SCENE INVESTIGATION

Shubham Kumar

1/28/20244 min read

green grass on gray soil
green grass on gray soil

Forensic evidence is actually the trigger button, which when pressed, unleashes the unravel mysteries and uncover the telltale. However, there is a cath. Just like in fight that only weapon is not important, but the bearer is also important, similarly, only evidence is not important but the investigator collecting and investigating it is also important. The true potential of the forensic evidence can only be received by skilled analysts.

In this article we are going to learn about the significance of forensic evidence in a crime, and what happen during absence of evidence, moreover, learning about the challenges in accessing the forensic evidence.

Forensic Evidence

Evidence refers to the physical object, biological matter or digital objects which when interpreted, unleashes the telltale of the actions related to the formation of that evidence. For example, if you see shoe prints in your room, which is surly not yours because yours are smaller ones, then that shoe prints will be became evidence that someone surely has entered in your house in your absence.

Now Forensic evidence is those evidence which are present of the crime scene or related to the crime, which is when investigated by a skilled analyst, unleashes the telltale about the commission of the crime. In the above example, if you will file an FIR in police on the grounds of trespassing and stalking, then that shoe print will become forensic evidence.

Forensic evidence can be in form of physical objects, (glass, knife, arms), biological matter (blood, semen) and digital object (chips, pen drives). In any case, forensic evidence holds a paramount position in criminal investigations, serving as a silent witness that can unravel mysteries and uncover the truth.

Forensic evidence itself cannot be wrong or deceptive; its value lies in the interpretation and understanding applied to it. by: Paul Kirk (A prominent figure in Forensic Science history).

In today's criminal justice system, forensic evidence plays a multifaceted role, ranging from proving the occurrence of a crime to establishing guilt or innocence.

Significance of Forensic Evidence

You have witnessed many cases which police solves within a week, however, there are multiple cases in which police takes time to investigate. Moreover, you have seen many cases which takes nearly 10 to 15 years in court, while some only take month to reach on conclusion. This difference is because of the presence of potential forensic evidence related to that particular crime.

Forensic Evidence acts the bridge in any crime through which police reach to the conclusion. Now the time depends on the status of that bridge. If that bridge is well built, then less time is required and if bridge is well mutilated, then more time is required. So that's how forensic evidence is important in an crime. Below listed are the application (significance) of forensic evidence in a crime.

Proving a Crime: Forensic evidence stands as a testament to the occurrence of a crime, providing concrete proof that an unlawful act has taken place.

Establishing Key Elements: It helps establish essential elements of a crime, aiding investigators in piecing together the puzzle and understanding the sequence of events.

Determining Guilt or Innocence: Forensic evidence can be the decisive factor in determining the guilt or innocence of a suspect, ensuring a fair and just legal outcome.

Identifying Perpetrators: It provides leads to the identification of the perpetrator, guiding law enforcement toward the individuals responsible for the crime.

Linking Circumstantial Evidence: Forensic evidence acts as a link in a chain of circumstantial evidence, strengthening the overall case against a suspect.

Corroborating Other Evidence: It corroborates other forms of evidence, reinforcing the reliability and credibility of information presented in court.

Testing Statements: Forensic evidence serves as a tool to test the accuracy of statements made by complainants, witnesses, or suspects, ensuring the reliability of testimonies.

What happens during the absence of forensic evidence?

If any crime scene investigation suffers the lack of forensic evidence in order to conclude the crime, then the investigators are subjected to investigate the crime scene with more efforts. In most of the cases, when there is a lack of evidence, the case remains the mystery like Arushi Talwar Case. However, in some cases, it became informative, as it prompts investigators to explore avenues and gather additional relevant information. This may uncover a hidden mystery too, for example Cyanide Malika case.

According to the Edmond Lockard's Principle, "Every contact leaves trace evidence." Therefore, the investigators must meticulously examine each and every detail. Furthermore, recognizing the potential significance of seemingly trivial elements that could contribute to solving the case.

Challenges in Assessing Physical Evidence

While statistical data may be lacking for some forms of physical evidence, experience becomes a crucial factor in estimating its value. Successful crime scene investigation requires a methodical and thorough approach, with investigators being mindful of potential pitfalls:

Inadequate Collection: Failing to collect potential physical evidence at the crime scene can hinder the investigation.

Insufficient Sample Material: Inadequate sample material from the suspect or victim can limit the scope of analysis and compromise the investigation.

Haste and Destruction: Hasty actions, intentional destruction, or accidental damage at the crime scene can obliterate valuable evidence.

Preconceived Ideas and Premature Conclusions: Investigators must guard against forming preconceived notions or reaching premature conclusions that could lead them astray.

Communication Breakdown: Lack of information flow and communication within the investigative team may result in oversight or missed opportunities.

Way Forward

In the realm of forensic science, the value of physical evidence cannot be overstated. A successful crime scene investigation requires a blend of expertise, methodical practices, and a commitment to unraveling the truth. The roles of a 'crime scene manager' and 'crime scene coordinator' become pivotal in orchestrating a seamless and comprehensive investigation. Ultimately, the integrity of forensic